Where possible, a full or partial translation is given of inscriptions which encode language. Question marks in brackets in the translation indicate unclear bits of the text; behind the translation, they express incertitude of the entire attempted translation. X stands for an element of a word (usually a base) which cannot be translated. A simple question mark on its own signifies that no suggestions for a translation can be offered at all. Unknown is used in cases of inscriptions of doubtful status, i.e. when it is not certain that the inscription has any translatable linguistic content at all, but as an intentional mark it is likely to convey some meaning. (See Non-script notational systems for speculations on what those meanings might be.) None is only used for unintentional or ornamental marks which are truly devoid of meaning.