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Transliteration: esimnesikaszrinuaḷ[?
Original script: ]L sA14 sU sN sI sR sZ sS dA14 sK4 sI sS dE sN sM sI sS dE s

Object: ST rock (stone)
(Inscriptions: ST-1, ST-2, ST-3, ST-4, ST-5, ST-6, ST-7, ST-8, ST-9)
Position: right-hand side"right-hand side" is not in the list (front, back, top, bottom, inside, outside, neck, shoulder, foot, handle, ...) of allowed values for the "position" property.
Orientation: 90°
Frame: ?Frame middle: top and bottomFrame middle: top and bottom   (unknown, top and bottom, none)
Script: North Italic script
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Letter height: 9.59.5 cm <br /> – 14 cm
Number of letters: 18
Number of lines: 1
Craftsmanship: engraved
Current condition: damaged
Date of inscription:
Date derived from:

Language: Raetic
Meaning: 'of/by Esimne Kastrinu'

Alternative sigla: IR 108
TM 218560
Sources: Schumacher 2004: 191, 224 f., 342 ff.



First published in Vetter 1957.

Images in Vetter 1957: Taf. VI (photos = Mayr 1960: Abb. 2 and 3), Prosdocimi 1971: 35 (drawing = Schumacher 1992: Taf. 8,2 = Schmeja 1996: Abb. 3), Joppich 1971: 41 (drawing), Schürr 1975: 607 (drawing), Zavaroni 2004: 50, Fig. 1 (drawing), Fig. 2 and 3 (photos),Schumacher 2004: Taf. 18 (drawing) and Mandl 2011: Abb. 1, 130, 131, 403 (photos). Numerous casts have been made of the Steinberg inscriptions; positives of the most recent one, made by the Institut für Ur- und Frühgeschichte Innsbruck in 1993, can be seen at the Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum and the Archäologische Staatssammlung München. Drawings of the arrangement of the inscriptions in Vetter 1957: 386, Prosdocimi 1971: 30, Zavaroni 2004: Fig. 15 and Schumacher 2004: Taf 8,1 (= Schumacher 2002: 1276); photos of the wall in Sydow 1989: Abb. 6, Gleirscher 1991: Abb. 3 and Mandl 2011: Abb. 133.

Length about 77 cm, running towards the ground; today the end is about 1.5 m from the ground. Situated on the right-hand side just behind the entrance to the crevice, the rightmost of a group of three; well legible despite some erosion. Our reading follows Schumacher 2004: 347 ff. and 351 ff., who assigned the correct values to the letters Lambda and Upsilon (as, independently, did Zavaroni 2004). The lower end of the inscription is heavily damaged and spoilt by more recent scratchings, but the presence of E s may be inferred from comparison with the preceding inscriptions.

The sequence can be segmented into a typical two-part Raetic name in the pertinentive case. The inscription is written in the same hand as ST-2 (overall ductus, rounded Kappa, spelling of the patronymic). The letter Z s, which is here classified as a form of Zeta, might also be considered a graphic variant of the Tau used in ST-1. The lower of the bars is less pronounced than the upper one (cp. the respective letter in ST-2), but certain. For details see Script.

Further references: Mayr 1958b, Mayr 1960: 309 f., Pisani 1964: 137 bis, Prosdocimi 1971: 36, 45 incl. Joppich 1971: 41, Schürr 1975: 606, Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 232, Sydow 1989: 70 ff., Schmeja 1996: 16 f., Schürr 2001: 215 f., Schumacher 2002: 1276 ff., Zavaroni 2004: 50 ff.


Gleirscher 1991 Paul Gleirscher, Die Räter, Chur: Rätisches Museum 1991.
IR Alberto Mancini, "Iscrizioni retiche", Studi Etruschi 43 (1975), 249–306.
Joppich 1971 Julius Joppich, "Anhang. Tonabdruck und Korrektur zur Lesung der Felsinschriften nach Emil Vetter", in: Wolfgang Meid, Hermann M. Ölberg, Hans Schmeja (Eds), Studien zur Namenkunde und Sprachgeographie. Festschrift für Karl Finsterwalder zum 70. Geburtstag [= Innsbrucker Beiträge zur Kulturwissenschaft 16], Innsbruck: 1971, 41–44.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze Studi 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10. (2 volumes)
Mandl 2011 Franz Mandl, Felsbilder. Österreich – Bayern: Nördliche Kalkalpen [= Anisa – Verein für alpine Forschung 4], Haus im Ennstal: 2011.
Mayr 1958b Karl M. Mayr, "-", review of: Emil Vetter, "Die vorrömischen Felsinschriften von Steinberg in Nordtirol", Anzeiger der phil.-hist. Klasse der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften Jg. 1957, Nr. 24 (1957), 384–398, Der Schlern 32 (1958), 303–304.