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Transliteration: φrima / remi visteχanu
Original script: U2 sA dM sI sR sΦ2 s
N sA dΧ sE sT3 sS dI sV sspace sI sM sE sR s

Object: SZ-2 bronze (bronze)
(Inscriptions: SZ-2.1, SZ-2.2)
Position: front
Script: North Italic script (Sanzeno alphabet)
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Letter height: 0.70.7 cm <br /> – 1 cm
Number of letters: 19
Number of lines: 2
Craftsmanship: embossed
Current condition: complete
Date of inscription:
Date derived from:

Language: Raetic
Meaning: 'Φrima (and) Remi, son of Visteχa'

Alternative sigla: IR 15 a
LIR SA-4 a
TM 218372
Sources: Schumacher 2004: 132, 335



First published in Mayr 1950: 333 (no. II). Autopsied by TIR in October 2014.

Images in Roberti 1950: Tav. I,II (drawing) = Mayr 1950: 335 (II), Pellegrini 1951: no. 2a (photo) and 307 (2a) (drawing), LIR (photo and drawing = IR).

Inscribed in two lines on the front of the bronze, both lines starting at the bifurcated end (the head of the "scorpion"). The letters are well legible and unambiguous. Alpha features rather short hastae with prolonged bars; the bar of final Alpha in line 2 is struck twice. In line 2, the writer could not fit the last letters (after E s) into the line; N sA dΧ s are written smaller in the upper half of the line, and final U2 s is inscribed above N s. Concerning Χ3 s in line 2: The character was read χ by Mayr and Pellegrini 1951: 309 (2a); Schumacher 2004: 334 (with note 208) suggests a reading as an enclitic conjunction 'and' (see -ka). Indeed, it is more likely to be a (factory?) mark, such as are usually found on the Sanzeno bronzes (cp. especially SZ-9.2, SZ-10.2, SZ-20): It is offset to the bottom, not as tall as the letters, its shape does not correspond to that of Χ s in visteχanu, and there are distinct gaps on either side. If a factory mark, it would have been applied before the inscription, so that the writer had to arrange his letters around it. Seeing as he managed to fit in the individual name neatly on the right side, the position is reflected in a space in our transliteration. (See Vetter 1954: 70 (2), who already suspected the character of not being a letter, but rather a separator.)

The inscription contains two individual names and a patronymic in -nu, all of which are also attested elswhere. φrima being most probably a female name, Schumacher 2004: 296 assumes that -nu is employed in patronymics for mixed couples. Cp. SZ-2.2, which also mentions Remi.

Further references: Pellegrini 1951: 322 f., Lejeune 1951: 214 (n. 10), Mayr 1952: 175 (2a), Pellegrini 1954: 430 f., Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 223 f.


IR Alberto Mancini, "Iscrizioni retiche", Studi Etruschi 43 (1975), 249–306.
Lejeune 1951 Michel Lejeune, "L'Inscription Rétique de Castelcies", Studi Etruschi 21 (1951), 209–214.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze Studi 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10. (2 volumes)
Mayr 1950 Karl M. Mayr, "Die Inschriften der Votive von Sanzeno (1)", Der Schlern 24 (1950), 332–336, 407–409.
Mayr 1952 Karl M. Mayr, "Zu den Inschriften der Votive von Sanzeno", Der Schlern 26 (1952), 175–177.