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Transliteration: velχanu
Original script: U2 sN sA5 sΧ sL2 sE sV s

Object: CE-1 situla (bronze)
(Inscriptions: CE-1.1, CE-1.2, CE-1.3, CE-1.4, CE-1.5)
Position: rim
Script: North Italic script (Sanzeno alphabet)
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Letter height: 1 cm
Number of letters: 7
Number of lines: 1
Craftsmanship: embossed
Current condition: complete
Date of inscription: 4th century BC [from object]
Date derived from: typology [from object]

Language: Raetic
Meaning: 'son of Velχa*'

Alternative sigla: PID 215 (b1)
IR 5 (b1)
LIR CE-1 (3)
MLR 26 (b1)
TM 218458
Sources: Schumacher 2004: 155, 337



First published in Giovanelli 1834. Autopsied by TIR in October 2014.

Pictures in Giovanelli 1834: drawing (= Giovanelli 1844), Inghirami 1828: Tav. XII (drawing), Giovanelli 1845: tav. I, fig. 7 (drawing = Giovanelli 1876: Taf. I, No. 7), Mommsen 1853: Taf. I, 11 B (drawing), Sulzer 1855: Tav. VII (drawing), CII: tav. I, Corssen 1874: tav. XXIII, Oberziner 1883b: tav. XXIII, AIF I: tav. II, no. 37 (drawing), IR (photo = LIR), Morandi 1982: 201 (drawing), MLR (photo).

Length about 4 cm; written on the rim of the situla, starting at about 2 cm from one of the eyes for the handle (the one closer to CE-1.1). Facing outward. Applied very neatly with thin strokes (<1 mm); only in final U2 s are they a bit askew. CE-1.2 and CE-1.3 resemble each other in ductus (vertical hastae in Alpha and Upsilon, vertical second bar in Nu) and execution (fine tool, slender letters) and may well have been written in one go.

The reading is unambiguous. The ending -nu indicates a patronymic; the associated individual name might be lavise in CE-1.1, but the latter appears to have been applied with a different tool. Also, why the spatial detachment? There would have been room aplenty for both sequences on both rim or handle.

Further reference: Inghirami 1828: 210–218 (= a letter from Giovanelli to Inghirami (1832), followed by Inghirami's reply (1833); the latter is also reprinted in the original publication), Giovanelli 1844: 99–113, Mommsen 1853: No. 11, Sulzer 1855: 22, Weber 1861: 31–32, Schneller 1866: 185 ff., CII: no. 12, Suppl. I: 5 f., 100, Corssen 1874: 919 ff., Deecke 1875–1884: Vol. III, 101, Pichler 1880: no. 1, Oberziner 1883b: 182 ff., AIF I: no. 37 (b), Runes 1935, Battisti 1944: 235 f., Mayr 1959d, Pisani 1964: 323 f., Morandi 1982: no. 77, Battisti 1936b: 596 f., Kretschmer 1943: 170 ff., Altheim 1951: 156, 228, 245, Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 233 f.


AIF I Carl Pauli, Altitalische Forschungen. Band 1: Die Inschriften nordetruskischen Alphabets, Leipzig: 1885.
Altheim 1951 Franz Altheim, Geschichte der lateinischen Sprache von den Anfängen bis zum Beginn der Literatur, Frankfurt am Main: 1951.
Battisti 1936b Carlo Battisti, "Rassegna critica degli studi linguistici sull'Alto Adige nel quinquennio 1931-36", Archivio per l'Alto Adige 31/2 (1936), 561–611.
Battisti 1944 Carlo Battisti, "Osservazioni sulla lingua delle iscrizioni nell'alfabeto etrusco settentrionale di Bolzano", Studi Etruschi 18 (1944), 199–236.
CII Ariodante Fabretti, Corpus inscriptionum italicarum, Torino: 1867. (2 volumes)
Corssen 1874 Wilhelm Paul Corssen, Ueber die Sprache der Etrusker. Band 1, Leipzig: 1874.
Deecke 1875–1884 Wilhelm Deecke, Etruskische Forschungen, Stuttgart: 1875–1884. (7 volumes)
Giovanelli 1834 Benedetto Giovanelli, "Ueber ein rhätisches Gefäß und über rhätische Paläographie", Beiträge zur Geschichte, Statistik, Naturkunde und Kunst von Tirol und Vorarlberg 8 (1834), 133–149.
Giovanelli 1844 Benedetto Giovanelli, Dei Rezj. Dell'origini de' popoli d'Italia e d'una iscrizione rezio-etrusca. Pensieri di Benedetto Conte Giovanelli Podestà di Trento, Trento: 1844.
Giovanelli 1845 Benedetto Giovanelli, Le antichità rezio-etrusche scoperte presso Matrai nel Maggio 1845, Trento: Monauni 1845.
Giovanelli 1876 Benedetto Giovanelli, "Die Rhätisch-Etruskischen Alterthümer entdeckt bei Matrei im Mai 1845", Zeitschrift des Ferdinandeums für Tirol und Vorarlberg 3/20 (1876), 45–99.
Inghirami 1828 Francesco Inghirami (Ed.), Lettere di etrusca erudizione, Fiesole: 1828.
IR Alberto Mancini, "Iscrizioni retiche", Studi Etruschi 43 (1975), 249–306.
Kretschmer 1943 Paul Kretschmer, "Die vorgriechischen Sprach- und Volksschichten (Fortsetzung)", Glotta 30 (1943), 84–218.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze Studi 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10. (2 volumes)