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Transliteration: tnake p̣iθamu / laþe?
Original script:

U2 sM sA3 dΘ sI sP2 sspace sE sK sA3 dN sT3 s

line v 0111 sline d 1000 sline d 2000 sline v 0111 sline d 1000 sline d 2000 sline v 0111 sE sÞ3 sA3 dL2 s

Object: BZ-10 slab (porphyry)
(Inscriptions: BZ-10.1, BZ-10.2)
Position: front
Script: North Italic script (Sanzeno alphabet)
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Letter height: 4.5 cm – 8.5 cm
Number of letters: 15 – 16
Number of lines: 2
Craftsmanship: engraved
Current condition: complete
Archaeological culture: Iron Age [from object]
Date of inscription: 5th–2nd centuries BC [from object]
Date derived from: archaeological context [from object]

Language: Raetic
Meaning: 'Tnake son of Pitam(n)e ?' (?)

Alternative sigla: PID 196 (a)
IR 4 (a)
LIR BZ-13 (a)
MLR 289 (a)
TM 218532
Sources: Schumacher 2004: 181



First published in CII 24. Autopsied by TIR in November 2013.

Pictures in Sulzer 1855: Tav. IX (drawing), Schneller 1866: Taf. II, Fig. 3, CII: tab. II (drawing = AIF I: Taf. II,36 A), Giovanelli 1876: Taf. II, No. 4, Oberziner 1883b: Tav. XX, 2 and 3 (drawings), Franz 1951: Taf. XV (drawing = Marchesini 2014b: Taf. 1), Franz 1959 (photo), IR: Tav. XXXVI b (photo), LIR (drawing), Marchesini 2014b: 202 and Taf. 2a and c (photos), MLR (photo).

Length 50.5 cm (line 1), 24 cm (line 2). The small stroke usually interpreted as a punctuation mark looks more like a bar belonging to the first letter of the second word, but on the wrong side. We prefer to exclude it from our reading, together with the similar bar on the other side of the hasta, which yields a reading piθamu to correspond to well attested piθam(n)e vel sim., rather than unparalleled viθamu. The two short scratches do, however, look intentional; their function is unclear. The two dots seen in the drawing are part of the stone; the dots drawn by Mancini could not be verified. The character after laþe has traditionally been read as San, but San never has this shape elsewhere among the Raetic inscriptions; more likely, this is a sign marking the end of the inscription. Cp. SR-4.

tnake may be interpreted as an individual name, with piθamu as a patronym in -nu with assimilation of the nasal cluster (/mn/ > /mm/). In this case, it might be either that of the person who put up the stone, or the person in whose memory it was erected. Note, however, that forms in -ke are frequent on slabs of stone from the Bozen/Nonsberg area, where they are tentatively interpreted as verbs with the preterite ending -ke. The anlauting consonant cluster in tnake is not suspicious in view of the fact that Etruscan has similar word-initial clusters, e.g. tnucasi in AV 4.1, tmia in Cr 4.4, and tmial in Cr 4.5. The similarity with (phonetically or orthographically) syncopated forms of þinaχe in the area of Verona must be coincidental, since Þ3 s occurs in the inscription.laþe may be an additional individual name or a verbal form.

Further references: Sulzer 1855: 307, Weber 1861: 36–37, Schneller 1866: 198 f., Giovanelli 1876: 97, Pichler 1880: 41 (no. 5), Oberziner 1883b: 150, AIF I 36, Kretschmer 1943: 178, 190, Battisti 1944: 227 f., Pisani 1953 321, Markey 2000, De Bernardo Stempel 2009: 175, Marchesini 2014b.


AIF I Carl Pauli, Altitalische Forschungen. Band 1: Die Inschriften nordetruskischen Alphabets, Leipzig: 1885.
Battisti 1944 Carlo Battisti, "Osservazioni sulla lingua delle iscrizioni nell'alfabeto etrusco settentrionale di Bolzano", Studi Etruschi 18 (1944), 199–236.
CII Ariodante Fabretti, Corpus inscriptionum italicarum, Torino: 1867. (2 volumes)
De Bernardo Stempel 2009 Patrizia de Bernardo Stempel, "La ricostruzione del celtico d'Italia sulla base dell'onomastica antica", in: Paolo Pocetti (Ed.), L'onomastica dell'Italia antica. Aspetti linguistici, storici, culturali, tipologici e classificatori, Roma: 2009, 153–192.
Franz 1951 Leonhard Franz, "Der älteste Fundbericht über das vorgeschichtliche Gräberfeld von Pfatten", Veröffentlichungen des Museums Ferdinandeum 31 (1951), Innsbruck: 1951, 125–132.
Franz 1959 Leonhard Franz, "Rätische Inschriften im Innsbrucker Landesmuseum", Der Schlern 33 (1959), 228–229.
Giovanelli 1876 Benedetto Giovanelli, "Die Rhätisch-Etruskischen Alterthümer entdeckt bei Matrei im Mai 1845", Zeitschrift des Ferdinandeums für Tirol und Vorarlberg 3/20 (1876), 45–99.
IR Alberto Mancini, "Iscrizioni retiche", Studi Etruschi 43 (1975), 249–306.
Kretschmer 1943 Paul Kretschmer, "Die vorgriechischen Sprach- und Volksschichten (Fortsetzung)", Glotta 30 (1943), 84–218.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze Studi 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10. (2 volumes)
Marchesini 2014b Simona Marchesini, "Über die rätische Inschrift aus Pfatten/Vadena im Tiroler Landesmuseum Ferdinandeum, Innsbruck", Wissenschaftliches Jahrbuch der Tiroler Landesmuseen 7 (2014), 202–217.
Markey 2000 Tom Markey, "Rheto-Celtic Pnake-Vitamulate = *Ben(n)acos Windamolatos", General Linguistics 37 (2000 [1997]), 37–40.