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Transliteration: kusen
Original script: K2 dU dS2 dE dN d

Object: UG-1 rock (stone)
(Inscriptions: UG-1.1, UG-1.2, UG-1.3, UG-1.4)
Position: bottom, right
Orientation: 90°
Frame: ?Frame middle: top and bottomFrame middle: top and bottomFrame right: straight   (unknown, top and bottom, straight)
Script: North Italic script (Magrè alphabet)
Direction of writing: dextroverse
Letter height: 77 cm <br /> – 11 cm
Number of letters: 5
Number of lines: 1
Craftsmanship: engraved
Current condition: damaged
Date of inscription:
Date derived from:

Type: prob. votive
Language: Raetic
Meaning: unknown

Alternative sigla: TM 653610



First published in TIR. First print publication in Schumacher 2016: 822–825. Examined by TIR in July 2014.

Image in Mandl 2011: Abb. 135 (photo = Schumacher 2016: Abb. 2).

Length about 24 cm, running vertically towards the top at about 60 cm from the bottom slightly to the right of the centre of the rock wall. Framed by a cartouche, the lower and left-hand side lines being considerably deeper than the others – this may be due to channeling by water running down the rock wall; it cannot be excluded that the notch before K2 d is a natural crack. No traces of characters can be detected beyond it.

The five letters inside the cartouche are unambiguously legible despite erosion. The frame line after N d has been retraced in more recent times and prolonged on the left side into the horizontal bar of a cross (the thin, sharp younger scratch stands out clearly from the broad, eroded older line). Beyond this line, it is hard to determine how far the frame lines extend towards the top: the left one seems to end in a deep crevice 8 cm above it, the right one goes on for at least 12 cm. Both may, however, be extending considerably farther, if, for example, the vertical bar of the cross right beneath the rock spur halfway up the wall is part of the left frame line. There appear to have been letters inscribed after the retraced frame line, traces of which can still be seen, but no secure reading can be offered (possibly S2 dI dT2 s sit[ ?). An interpretation of the frame line itself as a letter I d is unlikely, as it merges quite clearly with the other frame lines. No other instances of a frame line used for separation purposes text-internally are known from Raetic rock inscriptions; it is therefore preferable to assume that the doubtful letters after the frame line were added at a later date (cf. ST-6).

The inscription is filed as linguistically Raetic on the grounds of the comparison of kusen with CE-1.4 kusenku(s). Four-stroke sigma associates the inscription with the type-2 petrographs (see Raetic epigraphy).


Mandl 2011 Franz Mandl, Felsbilder. Österreich – Bayern: Nördliche Kalkalpen [= Anisa – Verein für alpine Forschung 4], Haus im Ennstal: 2011.