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Transliteration: taniniutikuremieshiratasuvakhikvelisanes
Original script: S sE sN sA11 sS sI sL sE3 sV3 sK2 sI sH3 sK2 sA3 sV3 sU sS sA3 sT4 sA3 sR2 sI sH3 sS sE3 sI sM sE3 sR2 sU sK2 sI sT4 sU sI sN sI sN sA3 sT4 s

Object: VR-3 spit (bronze)
Script: North Italic script (Magrè alphabet)
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Letter height: 0.7 cm
Number of letters: 40
Number of lines: 1
Craftsmanship: embossed
Current condition: complete, damaged
Date of inscription: uncertain [from object]
Date derived from: unknown [from object]

Language: Raetic

Alternative sigla: PID 247
MLR 290
TM 218515
Sources: Schumacher 2004: 171 f.


First published in Rossi 1672: 404 f. Autopsied by TIR on 19th November 2015.

Images in Rossi 1672: 407 (drawing = Mayr 1961: 213), Maffei 1739: tav. II,2 (drawing = Mommsen 1853: Taf. II,19 = CII: Tab. II,14 = AIF I: Taf. II,38 = Marstrander 1927: 24 (fig. 21)), Salzani 1984: 792 (drawing = Schumacher 2004: Taf. 2,4 = LIR), MLR (photos).

Length 21.7 cm. The letters are well distinguishable, the reading is unambiguous – including the twentieth letter (Rho) through which the spit is broken. Letter 37 (Alpha) is narrow and has a straight first hasta; it may be assumed that the writer made a mistake and had to squeeze in the second hasta and bar afterwards. Although Rossi's original drawing is clear and correct in every detail, Maffei introduced certain changes (letters 20, 21 and 37) which led to incorrect readings by the scholars who referred to his work and drawing. (A concise overview of the stemma of readings is given by Whatmough.) The correct reading was re-established on examination after Marinetti's relocation of the object (see Salzani's drawing).

The alphabet used in the inscription is Venetoid, with Lambda L s and Upsilon U s. The shape of Mu (with three bars) is typically Raetic, but the orientation of Alpha and Sigma is not. The most notable character is T4 s, which appears thrice, always in the form of a hasta with a perfectly round circle on top, and additionally a smaller dot in the centre. While Maffei 1739: 302 f., Mommsen 1853: 210 (no. 19) and Fabretti (CII 14) read a dental, Pauli (AIF I: 19 (no. 38)) established the reading as Phi. Marstrander 1927: 24 again reverted to a dental. Marinetti 1987 after an extensive discussion, decided upon Phi. See T on the reading as Tau given above.

Concerning segmentation and interpretation, the first half of the inscription contains some usable material. utiku can certainly be isolated, but is not accompanied by a pertinentive. tanini is tentatively identified with the well-attested, but obscure tani(u)n; final i must be expected to be an inflectional ending. Cp. aχvil, which also sometimes appears with -i – a locative? remies suggests itself as a genitive of the well-attested individual name remi, with a variant auslaut -ie (see The Raetic language).

Further references: Cipolla 1884: 9 ff., Pauli 1888: 146 f., Pellegrini 1918: 192 (note 2), PID: 549 (Commentary), Mayr 1961, Rix 1998: 33 ff.


AIF I Carl Pauli, Altitalische Forschungen. Band 1: Die Inschriften nordetruskischen Alphabets, Leipzig: 1885.
CII Ariodante Fabretti, Corpus inscriptionum italicarum, Torino: 1867. (2 volumes)
Cipolla 1884 Carlo Cipolla, "III. Lavagno", Notizie degli Scavi di Antichità (1884), 4–13.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze Studi 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10. (2 volumes)
Marinetti 1987 Anna Marinetti, "L'iscrizione retica (PID 247) da Ca' dei Cavri (Verona)", in: Alessandra Aspes (Ed.), Prima della Storia. Inediti di 10 anni di ricerche a Verona, Verona: Museo Civico di Storia Naturale 1987, 131–140.
Marstrander 1927 Carl Johan Sverdrup Marstrander, "Remarques sur les inscriptions des casques en bronze de Negau et de Watsch", Avhandlinger utgitt av Det Norske Videnskaps-Akademi i Oslo. Hist.-filos. klasse 1926/2 (1927), 1–26.