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Transliteration: kuninasi / θauχrilina
Original script: I sS dA dN sI sN sU2 sK s
A dN sI sL2 sI sR sΧ sU2 sA dΘ s

Object: SZ-9 bronze (bronze)
(Inscriptions: SZ-9.1, SZ-9.2)
Position: front
Script: North Italic script (Sanzeno alphabet)
Direction of writing: sinistroverse
Letter height: 0.70.7 cm <br /> – 1.6 cm
Number of letters: 18
Number of lines: 2
Craftsmanship: embossed
Current condition: complete
Date of inscription: 4th–3rd centuries BC [from object]
Date derived from: typology [from object]

Language: Raetic
Meaning: unknown

Alternative sigla: IR 22
TM 218379
Sources: Schumacher 2004: 134



First published in Mayr 1951: 78 f. (no. IX). Autopsied by TIR in October 2014.

Images in Roberti 1950: Tav. III,IX (drawing) = Mayr 1951: 78 (IX), Pellegrini 1951: no. 9 (photo) and 313 (9) (drawing), LIR (photo and drawing = IR).

Inscribed in two lines on the front of the bronze; line 1 on the horse's torso, starting at the backside (length 3.7 cm), line 2 starting on the hind leg and extending onto the bronze's foot (length about 6.2 cm). The letters are well legible and unambiguous. Line 1 is in its entirety inscribed following the ridge running along the centre of the torso as its reference line, hence the increase in letter size towards the end where the torso becomes broader; similarly, the beginning of line 2 is inscribed between the lower edge of and the ridge running along the hind leg – this space becomes smaller on the foot, where after a tiny R s the writer switched to covering the entire breadth of the foot with the remaining letters. A short vertical stroke punctuation7 s can be seen right above the bar of L2 s, but it is highly unlikely to be a separator – probably a slip of the tool (pace IR, see LIR).

kuninasi can be interpreted as a patronymic in -na in the pertinentive case. Similarly, final -na in line 2 is likely to be the patronymic suffix. Segmentation of line 2 is problematic; cp. θauχ- on SZ-87. Theeoretically, kunina might be an individual name only happening to end in -na; inflecting only the individual name may have been an option in Raetic, though this assumption rests on very slender evidence (cp. Schumacher 1998: 109 f., 112 and SZ-14). Seeing as we know a number of bronzes on which more than one person is named, this may well be the case here.

Further references: Pellegrini 1951: 312 ff. (no. 9) and 324, Mayr 1952: 176, Vetter 1954: 71, Tibiletti Bruno 1978: 222.


IR Alberto Mancini, "Iscrizioni retiche", Studi Etruschi 43 (1975), 249–306.
LIR Alberto Mancini, Le Iscrizioni Retiche [= Quaderni del dipartimento di linguistica, Università degli studi di Firenze Studi 8–9], Padova: Unipress 2009–10. (2 volumes)
Mayr 1951 Karl M. Mayr, "Die Inschriften der Votive von Sanzeno (2)", Der Schlern 25 (1951), 30–32, 78–79, 133–135, 179–181.
Mayr 1952 Karl M. Mayr, "Zu den Inschriften der Votive von Sanzeno", Der Schlern 26 (1952), 175–177.